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Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature.






Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), Musée d'Orsay, 1876

Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner. They also painted realistic scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were usually painted in a studio.[1] The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, and used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration.

Impressionism emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, and Winslow Homer in the United States, were also exploring plein-air painting. The Impressionists, however, developed new techniques specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.

The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style.

By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism is a precursor of various painting styles, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism.


In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war—the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art. The Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued; landscape and still life were not. The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artist's hand in the work.[2] Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish.[3]

The Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of such artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel.

In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frédéric Bazille—met while studying under the academic artist Charles Gleyre. They discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. Following a practice that had become increasingly popular by mid-century, they often ventured into the countryside together to paint in the open air, but not for the purpose of making sketches to be developed into carefully finished works in the studio, as was the usual custom.[4] By painting in sunlight directly from nature, and making bold use of the vivid synthetic pigments that had become available since the beginning of the century, they began to develop a lighter and brighter manner of painting that extended further the Realism of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school. A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were often led by Édouard Manet, whom the younger artists greatly admired. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, and Armand Guillaumin.[5]


Édouard Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863

During the 1860s, the Salon jury routinely rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style.[6] In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) primarily because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury routinely accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, they condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting.[7] The jury's severely worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists.

After Emperor Napoleon III saw the rejected works of 1863, he decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, and the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused) was organized. While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visitors than the regular Salon.[8]


Alfred Sisley, View of the Saint-Martin Canal, Paris, 1870, Musée d'Orsay

Artists' petitions requesting a new Salon des Refusés in 1867, and again in 1872, were denied. In December 1873, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley, Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas and several other artists founded the Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs ("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") to exhibit their artworks independently.[9] Members of the association were expected to forswear participation in the Salon.[10] The organizers invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their inaugural exhibition, including the older Eugène Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to adopt plein air painting years before.[11] Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Édouard Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar.


Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, oil on canvas, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

The critical response was mixed. Monet and Cézanne received the harshest attacks. Critic and humorist Louis Leroy wrote a scathing review in the newspaper Le Charivari in which, making wordplay with the title of Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), he gave the artists the name by which they became known. Derisively titling his article The Exhibition of the Impressionists, Leroy declared that Monet's painting was at most, a sketch, and could hardly be termed a finished work.

He wrote, in the form of a dialog between viewers,

Impression—I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it ... and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape.[12]


Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son (Camille and Jean Monet), 1875, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

The term impressionists quickly gained favour with the public. It was also accepted by the artists themselves, even though they were a diverse group in style and temperament, unified primarily by their spirit of independence and rebellion. They exhibited together—albeit with shifting membership—eight times between 1874 and 1886. The Impressionists' style, with its loose, spontaneous brushstrokes, would soon become synonymous with modern life.[3]

Monet, Sisley, Morisot, and Pissarro may be considered the "purest" Impressionists, in their consistent pursuit of an art of spontaneity, sunlight, and colour. Degas rejected much of this, as he believed in the primacy of drawing over colour and belittled the practice of painting outdoors.[13] Renoir turned away from Impressionism for a time during the 1880s, and never entirely regained his commitment to its ideas. Édouard Manet, although regarded by the Impressionists as their leader,[14] never abandoned his liberal use of black as a colour, and never participated in the Impressionist exhibitions. He continued to submit his works to the Salon, where his painting Spanish Singer had won a 2nd class medal in 1861, and he urged the others to do likewise, arguing that "the Salon is the real field of battle" where a reputation could be made.[15]


Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg

Among the artists of the core group (minus Bazille, who had died in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870), defections occurred as Cézanne, followed later by Renoir, Sisley, and Monet, abstained from the group exhibitions so they could submit their works to the Salon. Disagreements arose from issues such as Guillaumin's membership in the group, championed by Pissarro and Cézanne against opposition from Monet and Degas, who thought him unworthy.[16] Degas invited Mary Cassatt to display her work in the 1879 exhibition, but also insisted on the inclusion of Jean-François Raffaëlli, Ludovic Lepic, and other realists who did not represent Impressionist practices, causing Monet in 1880 to accuse the Impressionists of "opening doors to first-come daubers".[17] The group divided over invitations to Paul Signac and Georges Seurat to exhibit with them in 1886. Pissarro was the only artist to show at all eight Impressionist exhibitions.

The individual artists achieved few financial rewards from the Impressionist exhibitions, but their art gradually won a degree of public acceptance and support. Their dealer, Durand-Ruel, played a major role in this as he kept their work before the public and arranged shows for them in London and New York. Although Sisley died in poverty in 1899, Renoir had a great Salon success in 1879. Monet became secure financially during the early 1880s and so did Pissarro by the early 1890s. By this time the methods of Impressionist painting, in a diluted form, had become commonplace in Salon art.[18]

Impressionist techniques


Mary Cassatt, Lydia Leaning on Her Arms (in a theatre box), 1879

French painters who prepared the way for Impressionism include the Romantic colourist Eugène Delacroix, the leader of the realists Gustave Courbet, and painters of the Barbizon school such as Théodore Rousseau. The Impressionists learned much from the work of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Eugène Boudin, who painted from nature in a style that was similar to Impressionism, and who befriended and advised the younger artists.

A number of identifiable techniques and working habits contributed to the innovative style of the Impressionists. Although these methods had been used by previous artists—and are often conspicuous in the work of artists such as Frans Hals, Diego Velázquez, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, and J. M. W. Turner—the Impressionists were the first to use them all together, and with such consistency. These techniques include:

  • Short, thick strokes of paint quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details. The paint is often applied impasto.
  • Colours are applied side-by-side with as little mixing as possible, a technique that exploits the principle of simultaneous contrast to make the colour appear more vivid to the viewer.
  • Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing complementary colours. Pure impressionism avoids the use of black paint.
  • Wet paint is placed into wet paint without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of colour.
  • Impressionist paintings do not exploit the transparency of thin paint films (glazes), which earlier artists manipulated carefully to produce effects. The impressionist painting surface is typically opaque.
  • The paint is applied to a white or light-coloured ground. Previously, painters often used dark grey or strongly coloured grounds.
  • The play of natural light is emphasized. Close attention is paid to the reflection of colours from object to object. Painters often worked in the evening to produce effets de soir—the shadowy effects of evening or twilight.
  • In paintings made en plein air (outdoors), shadows are boldly painted with the blue of the sky as it is reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness previously not represented in painting. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)

New technology played a role in the development of the style. Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in tin tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes), which allowed artists to work more spontaneously, both outdoors and indoors.[19] Previously, painters made their own paints individually, by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, which were then stored in animal bladders.[20]

Many vivid synthetic pigments became commercially available to artists for the first time during the 19th century. These included cobalt blue, viridian, cadmium yellow, and synthetic ultramarine blue, all of which were in use by the 1840s, before Impressionism.[21] The Impressionists' manner of painting made bold use of these pigments, as well as even newer colours such as cerulean blue,[3] which became commercially available to artists in the 1860s.[21]

The Impressionists' progress toward a brighter style of painting was gradual. During the 1860s, Monet and Renoir sometimes painted on canvases prepared with the traditional red-brown or grey ground.[22] By the 1870s, Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro usually chose to paint on grounds of a lighter grey or beige colour, which functioned as a middle tone in the finished painting.[22] By the 1880s, some of the Impressionists had come to prefer white or slightly off-white grounds, and no longer allowed the ground colour a significant role in the finished painting.[23]

Content and composition


Camille Pissarro, Hay Harvest at Éragny, 1901, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

Prior to the Impressionists, other painters, notably such 17th-century Dutch painters as Jan Steen, had emphasized common subjects, but their methods of composition were traditional. They arranged their compositions so that the main subject commanded the viewer's attention. The Impressionists relaxed the boundary between subject and background so that the effect of an Impressionist painting often resembles a snapshot, a part of a larger reality captured as if by chance.[24] Photography was gaining popularity, and as cameras became more portable, photographs became more candid. Photography inspired Impressionists to represent momentary action, not only in the fleeting lights of a landscape, but in the day-to-day lives of people.


Berthe Morisot, Reading, 1873, Cleveland Museum of Art

The development of Impressionism can be considered partly as a reaction by artists to the challenge presented by photography, which seemed to devalue the artist's skill in reproducing reality. Both portrait and landscape paintings were deemed somewhat deficient and lacking in truth as photography "produced lifelike images much more efficiently and reliably".[25]

In spite of this, photography actually inspired artists to pursue other means of artistic expression, and rather than compete with photography to emulate reality, artists focused "on the one thing they could inevitably do better than the photograph—by further developing into an art form its very subjectivity in the conception of the image, the very subjectivity that photography eliminated".[25] The Impressionists sought to express their perceptions of nature, rather than create exact representations. This allowed artists to depict subjectively what they saw with their "tacit imperatives of taste and conscience".[26] Photography encouraged painters to exploit aspects of the painting medium, like colour, which photography then lacked: "The Impressionists were the first to consciously offer a subjective alternative to the photograph".[25]


Claude Monet, Jardin à Sainte-Adresse, 1867, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.,[27] a work showing the influence of Japanese prints

Another major influence was Japanese art prints (Japonism), which originally came into France as wrapping paper on imported goods. The art of these prints contributed significantly to the "snapshot" angles and unconventional compositions that became characteristic of Impressionism. An example is Monet's Jardin à Sainte-Adresse, 1867, with its bold blocks of colour and composition on a strong diagonal slant showing the influence of Japanese prints[28]

Edgar Degas was both an avid photographer and a collector of Japanese prints.[29] His The Dance Class (La classe de danse) of 1874 shows both influences in its asymmetrical composition. The dancers are seemingly caught off guard in various awkward poses, leaving an expanse of empty floor space in the lower right quadrant. He also captured his dancers in sculpture, such as the Little Dancer of Fourteen Years.

Main Impressionists


Berthe Morisot, The Harbor at Lorient, 1869, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

The central figures in the development of Impressionism in France, listed alphabetically, were:

States NameAbbr.StatusCapitalArea

A-L (km²)Population
C 1980-04-01Population
C 1990-04-01Population
C 2000-04-01Population
C 2010-04-01Population
E 2013-04-01 USAUSAFed RepWashington9,161,074226,545,805248,709,873281,421,906308,745,538316,128,839 AlabamaALFStMontgomery131,4143,893,8884,040,5874,447,1004,779,7364,833,722Area: 131,414 km² – Density: 36.8 inh./km² [2013] – Change: +0.37%/year [2010 → 2013]

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AlaskaAKFStJuneau1,481,210401,851550,043626,932710,231735,132 ArizonaAZFStPhoenix294,2852,718,2153,665,2285,130,6326,392,0176,626,624 ArkansasARFStLittle Rock134,8432,286,4352,350,7252,673,4002,915,9182,959,373 CaliforniaCAFStSacramento403,89523,667,90229,760,02133,871,64837,253,95638,332,521 ColoradoCOFStDenver268,6022,889,9643,294,3944,301,2615,029,1965,268,367 ConnecticutCTFStHartford12,5473,107,5763,287,1163,405,5653,574,0973,596,080 DelawareDEFStDover5,059594,338666,168783,600897,934925,749 District of ColumbiaDCDistWashington159638,333606,900572,059601,723646,449 FloridaFLFStTallahassee139,6579,746,32412,937,92615,982,37818,801,31019,552,860 GeorgiaGAFStAtlanta149,9625,463,1056,478,2168,186,4539,687,6539,992,167 HawaiiHIFStHonolulu16,633964,6911,108,2291,211,5371,360,3011,404,054 IdahoIDFStBoise City214,294943,9351,006,7491,293,9531,567,5821,612,136 IllinoisILFStSpringfield143,94711,426,51811,430,60212,419,29312,830,63212,882,135 IndianaINFStIndianapolis92,8865,490,2245,544,1596,080,4856,483,8026,570,902 IowaIAFStDes Moines144,6882,913,8082,776,7552,926,3243,046,3553,090,416 KansasKSFStTopeka211,8802,363,6792,477,5742,688,4182,853,1182,893,957 KentuckyKYFStFrankfort102,8863,660,7773,685,2964,041,7694,339,3674,395,295 LouisianaLAFStBaton Rouge112,8144,205,9004,219,9734,468,9764,533,3724,625,470 MaineMEFStAugusta79,9241,124,6601,227,9281,274,9231,328,3611,328,302 MarylandMDFStAnnapolis25,3124,216,9754,781,4685,296,4865,773,5525,928,814 MassachusettsMAFStBoston20,3045,737,0376,016,4256,349,0976,547,6296,692,824 MichiganMIFStLansing147,1089,262,0789,295,2979,938,4449,883,6409,895,622 MinnesotaMNFStSt. Paul206,1704,075,9704,375,0994,919,4795,303,9255,420,380 MississippiMSFStJackson121,4772,520,6382,573,2162,844,6582,967,2972,991,207 MissouriMOFStJefferson City178,3974,916,6865,117,0735,595,2115,988,9276,044,171 MontanaMTFStHelena376,944786,690799,065902,195989,4151,015,165 NebraskaNEFStLincoln199,0801,569,8251,578,3851,711,2631,826,3411,868,516 NevadaNVFStCarson City284,422800,4931,201,8331,998,2572,700,5512,790,136 New HampshireNHFStConcord23,225920,6101,109,2521,235,7861,316,4701,323,459 New JerseyNJFStTrenton19,2097,364,8237,730,1888,414,3508,791,8948,899,339 New MexicoNMFStSanta Fe314,2801,302,8941,515,0691,819,0462,059,1792,085,287 New YorkNYFStAlbany122,27217,558,07217,990,45518,976,45719,378,10219,651,127 North CarolinaNCFStRaleigh126,1495,881,7666,628,6378,049,3139,535,4839,848,060 North DakotaNDFStBismarck178,630652,717638,800642,200672,591723,393 OhioOHFStColumbus106,04610,797,63010,847,11511,353,14011,536,50411,570,808 OklahomaOKFStOklahoma City177,8303,025,2903,145,5853,450,6543,751,3513,850,568 OregonORFStSalem248,6072,633,1052,842,3213,421,3993,831,0743,930,065 PennsylvaniaPAFStHarrisburg116,06411,863,89511,881,64312,281,05412,702,37912,773,801 Rhode IslandRIFStProvidence2,706947,1541,003,4641,048,3191,052,5671,051,511 South CarolinaSCFStColumbia77,9763,121,8203,486,7034,012,0124,625,3644,774,839 South DakotaSDFStPierre196,522690,768696,004754,844814,180844,877 TennesseeTNFStNashville106,7424,591,1204,877,1855,689,2836,346,1056,495,978 TexasTXFStAustin677,98914,229,19116,986,51020,851,82025,145,56126,448,193 UtahUTFStSalt Lake City212,7311,461,0371,722,8502,233,1692,763,8852,900,872 VermontVTFStMontpelier23,954511,456562,758608,827625,741626,630 VirginiaVAFStRichmond102,5395,346,8186,187,3587,078,5158,001,0248,260,405 WashingtonWAFStOlympia172,3324,132,1564,866,6925,894,1216,724,5406,971,406 West VirginiaWVFStCharleston62,3551,949,6441,793,4771,808,3441,852,9941,854,304 WisconsinWIFStMadison140,6494,705,7674,891,7695,363,6755,686,9865,742,713 WyomingWYFStCheyenne251,466469,557453,588493,782563,626582,658

  • US Census Bureau (web).

Major Cities  NameAdm.Population
C E 2013-07-01 1New YorkNY8,405,837 2Los AngelesCA3,884,307 3ChicagoIL2,718,782 4HoustonTX2,195,914 5PhiladelphiaPA1,553,165 6PhoenixAZ1,513,367 7San AntonioTX1,409,019 8San DiegoCA1,355,896 9DallasTX1,257,676 10San JoseCA998,537 Cities, Towns & Places NameStatusAdm.Population
C C 1980-04-01Population
C C 1990-04-01Population
C C 2000-04-01Population
C C 2010-04-01Population
C E 2013-07-01 AbileneCityTX98,315106,654116,028117,463120,099 AkronCityOH237,177223,019216,899199,092198,100 AlbuquerqueCityNM332,920384,736449,807546,364556,495 AlexandriaCityVA103,217111,183128,278139,966148,892 AllentownCityPA103,758105,090106,661118,032118,577 AmarilloCityTX149,230157,615173,562190,701196,429 AnaheimCityCA219,494266,406327,920336,511345,012 AnchorageMunAK174,431226,338260,299291,826300,950 Ann ArborCityMI107,969109,592114,638113,946117,025 AntiochCityCA42,68362,19590,924102,365107,100 ArlingtonCityTX160,113261,721333,240365,366379,577 ArlingtonCntyVA152,599170,936189,385207,628224,906 ArvadaCityCO......102,383106,474111,707 Athens (- Clarke County)UGovGA...86,522100,667115,453119,980 AtlantaCityGA425,022394,017418,371420,279447,841 Augusta (- Richmond County)UGovGA...186,616195,016195,844197,350 AuroraCityIL81,29399,581143,002197,952199,963 AuroraCityCO158,588222,103275,687324,601345,803 AustinCityTX345,890465,622670,654810,759885,400 BakersfieldCityCA105,611174,820244,217347,568363,630 BaltimoreCityMD786,741736,014651,262621,115622,104 Baton RougeCityLA220,394219,531226,623229,452229,426 BeaumontCityTX118,102114,323113,658117,267117,796 BellevueCityWA......112,380127,887133,992 BerkeleyCityCA103,328102,724102,653112,497116,768 BillingsCityMT66,81881,15191,740104,190109,059 BirminghamCityAL284,413265,347241,645212,193212,113 Boise CityCityID......195,604206,105214,237 BostonCityMA...574,283590,355617,720645,966 BoulderCityCO76,68583,31294,21397,468103,166 BrandonUnincFL41,82657,98577,895103,483109,000 BridgeportCityCT142,546141,686139,526144,236147,216 Broken ArrowCityOK......80,95798,832103,500 BrownsvilleCityTX......144,364175,007181,860 BuffaloCityNY357,870328,123292,819261,325258,959 BurbankCityCA84,62593,649100,317103,340104,709 CambridgeCityMA95,32295,802101,322105,162107,289 Cape CoralCityFL32,10374,991102,414154,305165,831 CarlsbadCityCA35,49063,12678,455105,459110,972 CarrolltonCityTX40,59582,169109,680119,100126,700 CaryTownNC......96,260135,276151,088 Cedar RapidsCityIA......121,135126,326128,429 CentennialCityCO......102,586100,442106,114 ChandlerCityAZ29,67390,533176,240236,176249,146 CharlestonCitySC69,77980,414100,459120,358127,999 CharlotteCityNC......574,151735,766792,862 ChattanoogaCityTN169,514152,466156,472168,828173,366 ChesapeakeCityVA114,486151,976199,153222,209230,571 ChicagoCityIL3,005,0722,783,7262,895,9662,695,5982,718,782 Chula VistaCityCA83,927135,163173,661243,916256,780 CincinnatiCityOH385,409364,040330,796296,950297,517 ClarksvilleCityTN54,77775,494103,601132,957142,357 ClearwaterCityFL85,17098,784109,221108,261109,703 ClevelandCityOH573,822505,616477,450396,697390,113 College StationCityTX37,27252,45668,64494,063100,050 Colorado SpringsCityCO215,105281,140360,329417,341439,886 ColumbiaUnincMD52,51875,88388,25499,615105,000 ColumbiaCityMO62,06169,10185,814108,835115,276 ColumbiaCitySC......118,135130,038133,358 ColumbusCityGA169,441178,681186,213189,885202,824 ColumbusCityOH565,021632,910712,445788,626822,553 ConcordCityCA103,763111,348122,001122,110125,880 Coral SpringsCityFL37,34979,443118,002121,098126,604 CoronaCityCA37,79176,095127,618152,374159,503 Corpus ChristiCityTX232,134257,453277,560305,215316,381 Costa MesaCityCA82,56296,357109,371109,935112,174 DallasCityTX904,5991,006,8771,187,7421,197,7871,257,676 Daly CityCityCA78,51992,311103,519101,099104,739 DavenportCityIA103,26495,33398,29899,687102,157 DaytonCityOH193,536182,044165,579141,761143,355 DentonCityTX48,06366,27083,442114,187123,099 DenverCityCO492,686467,610553,805600,080649,495 Des MoinesCityIA191,003193,187199,173204,192207,510 DetroitCityMI1,203,3681,027,974951,232713,862688,701 DowneyCityCA82,60291,444107,366111,772113,242 DurhamCityNC......187,950228,404245,475 East Los AngelesUnincCA110,017126,379124,283126,496126,800 EdisonTshpNJ70,19388,68097,62399,971101,450 El CajonCityCA73,89288,69394,90799,476102,211 ElginCityIL63,66877,01094,638108,214110,145 ElizabethCityNJ106,201110,002120,599124,969127,558 Elk Grove (incl. Laguna)CityCA......81,082153,015161,007 El MonteCityCA79,494106,209116,102113,475115,708 El PasoCityTX425,259515,342566,896649,133674,433 EnterpriseUnincNV...6,41214,676108,481130,000 ErieCityPA119,123108,718103,748101,784100,671 EscondidoCityCA64,355108,635133,524143,913148,738 EugeneCityOR105,664112,669138,831156,358159,190 EvansvilleCityIN130,496126,272121,611120,081120,310 EverettCityWA......95,617103,022105,370 FairfieldCityCA58,09977,21196,213105,323109,320 FargoCityND61,38374,11191,001105,549113,658 FayettevilleCityNC......203,199200,574204,408 FontanaCityCA......144,869196,069203,003 Fort CollinsCityCO65,09287,758121,591144,073152,061 Fort LauderdaleCityFL......170,617165,502172,389 Fort WayneCityIN......253,688253,706256,496 Fort WorthCityTX385,164447,619543,044742,060792,727 FremontCityCA131,945173,339203,461214,079224,922 FresnoCityCA217,491354,202429,583496,093509,924 FriscoCityTX......33,618117,084136,791 FullertonCityCA102,246114,144126,187135,258138,981 GainesvilleCityFL......117,860124,486127,488 Garden GroveCityCA123,307143,050165,242171,010175,140 GarlandCityTX138,857180,650215,818226,876234,566 GilbertTownAZ5,71729,188114,567208,414229,972 GlendaleCityAZ97,172148,134219,721226,437234,632 GlendaleCityCA139,060180,038194,943191,713196,021 Grand PrairieCityTX71,46299,616128,025175,468183,372 Grand RapidsCityMI181,843189,126198,057188,051192,294 Green BayCityWI87,89996,466102,877103,913104,779 GreensboroCityNC......236,152268,878279,639 GreshamCityOR33,00568,23590,205105,594109,397 HamptonCityVA122,617133,793146,436137,515136,699 HartfordCityCT......124,175124,775125,017 HaywardCityCA93,585114,498140,107144,342151,574 HendersonCityNV24,36364,942175,480257,437270,811 HialeahCityFL145,254188,004226,211224,667233,394 Highlands RanchUnincCO......70,93196,713102,000 High PointCityNC......85,677104,387107,741 HollywoodCityFL121,323121,697139,427140,769146,526 Honolulu (Urban Honolulu CDP)CityHI365,048365,272371,657337,256347,884 HoustonCityTX1,595,1381,630,5531,973,6482,096,7982,195,914 Huntington BeachCityCA170,505181,519189,591191,037197,575 HuntsvilleCityAL142,513159,789159,390180,241186,254 IndependenceCityMO111,797112,301113,457116,830117,240 IndianapolisCityIN700,807731,327782,429820,442843,393 InglewoodCityCA94,162109,602112,276109,673111,542 IrvineCityCA62,134110,330144,023211,906236,716 IrvingCityTX109,943155,037191,733216,287228,653 JacksonCityMS202,895196,637186,843173,513172,638 JacksonvilleCityFL540,920635,230735,070821,784842,583 Jersey CityCityNJ223,532228,537240,136247,643257,342 JolietCityIL......106,849147,457147,806 Kansas CityCityKS161,148149,767146,906145,786148,483 Kansas CityCityMO448,028435,146441,861459,787467,007 KentCityWA......80,492118,590124,435 KilleenCityTX46,29663,53590,162127,911137,147 KnoxvilleCityTN......173,812178,765183,270 LafayetteCityLA......111,445120,719124,276 LakelandCityFL47,40670,57684,69197,433100,710 LakewoodCityCO113,808126,481143,945142,999147,214 LancasterCityCA48,02797,291118,487156,633159,523 LansingCityMI130,414127,321119,813114,297113,972 LaredoCityTX91,449122,899179,518236,086248,142 Las CrucesCityNM45,08662,12674,94297,621101,324 Las VegasCityNV164,674258,295480,042584,044603,488 LewisvilleCityTX24,27346,52177,64795,309101,074 Lexington (- Fayette)UGovKY204,165225,366260,527295,803308,428 LincolnCityNE171,932191,972227,048258,468268,738 Little RockCityAR159,151175,795183,123193,524197,357 Long BeachCityCA361,498429,433461,412462,257469,428 Los AngelesCityCA2,968,5283,485,3983,694,2573,792,6223,884,307 Louisville (/ Jefferson County)UGovKY......553,979597,265609,893 LowellCityMA92,418103,439105,046106,519108,861 LubbockCityTX174,361186,206200,003229,399239,538 MadisonCityWI170,616191,262208,966233,362243,344 ManchesterCityNH90,93699,567107,023109,571110,378 McAllenCityTX66,28184,021106,727130,242136,639 McKinneyCityTX16,25621,28354,248131,025148,559 MemphisCityTN......689,199646,872653,450 MesaCityAZ152,404288,091397,503439,611457,587 MesquiteCityTX67,053101,484125,085139,629143,484 MetairieUnincLA164,160149,428146,136138,481139,000 MiamiCityFL346,681358,548361,580399,508417,650 Miami Gardens (Carol City - Norland)CityFL......100,421107,163111,378 MidlandCityTX70,52589,44395,780111,147123,933 MilwaukeeCityWI636,297628,088596,783594,740599,164 MinneapolisCityMN370,951368,383382,824382,578400,070 MiramarCityFL32,81340,66372,757122,041130,288 MobileCityAL200,452196,278203,627195,102194,899 ModestoCityCA106,963164,730188,947201,187204,933 MontgomeryCityAL......201,694205,597201,332 Moreno ValleyCityCA...118,779142,634193,365201,175 MurfreesboroCityTN32,84544,92269,205109,046117,044 MurrietaCityCA......51,256103,424107,479 NapervilleCityIL42,60185,351128,396142,089144,864 Nashville (- Davidson)UGovTN455,651488,374545,659603,527634,464 NewarkCityNJ329,248275,221272,499277,138278,427 New HavenCityCT126,089130,474123,928129,868130,660 New OrleansCityLA557,927496,938484,692343,829378,715 Newport NewsCityVA144,903170,045180,272180,918182,020 New YorkCityNY7,071,6397,322,5648,009,1858,175,1368,405,837 NorfolkCityVA266,979261,229234,463242,833246,139 NormanCityOK68,02080,07196,815110,925118,197 North CharlestonCitySC62,47970,21881,43497,690104,054 North Las VegasCityNV42,73947,707116,527216,701226,877 NorwalkCityCA84,90194,279103,539105,549106,589 OaklandCityCA339,337372,242399,334390,865406,253 OceansideCityCA76,698128,398160,645167,086172,794 OdessaCityTX90,02789,69990,72699,875110,720 Oklahoma CityCityOK404,014444,719505,530580,005610,613 OlatheCityKS37,25863,35293,069125,876131,885 OmahaCityNE......408,637416,969434,353 OntarioCityCA88,820133,179158,011163,924167,500 OrangeCityCA91,450110,658129,744136,426139,969 OrlandoCityFL128,291164,693194,880238,834255,483 Overland ParkCityKS81,784111,790150,676173,334181,260 OxnardCityCA108,195142,216170,179197,899203,007 Palm BayCityFL18,56062,63279,403103,203104,898 PalmdaleCityCA12,27768,842116,891152,750157,161 ParadiseUnincNV84,818124,682186,070223,167230,000 PasadenaCityCA118,072131,591133,842137,122139,731 PasadenaCityTX112,560119,363141,763149,300152,735 PatersonCityNJ137,970140,891149,230146,199145,948 PearlandCityTX......45,68389,894100,065 Pembroke PinesCityFL35,77665,452137,324154,019162,329 PeoriaCityIL124,160113,504112,964115,021116,513 PeoriaCityAZ12,17150,618109,123154,084162,592 PhiladelphiaCityPA1,688,2101,585,5771,517,5621,526,0061,553,165 PhoenixCityAZ789,704983,4031,323,1071,447,6261,513,367 PittsburghCityPA423,959369,879334,325305,702305,841 PlanoCityTX72,331128,713221,996259,841274,409 PomonaCityCA92,742131,723147,966149,058151,348 Pompano BeachCityFL......100,27799,844104,410 PortlandCityOR368,148437,319529,122583,786609,456 Port St. LucieCityFL14,69055,86688,454164,719171,016 ProvidenceCityRI156,804160,728173,525178,042177,994 ProvoCityUT74,11186,835105,552112,495116,288 PuebloCityCO101,68698,640101,796106,544108,249 RaleighCityNC......288,283403,971431,746 Rancho CucamongaCityCA55,250101,409127,755165,350171,386 RenoCityNV100,756133,850183,547225,988233,294 RialtoCityCA37,86272,38892,03599,170101,910 RichardsonCityTX72,49674,84091,13299,223104,475 RichmondCityVA219,214203,056196,991204,247214,114 RichmondCityCA74,67687,42599,250103,670107,571 RiversideCityCA170,591226,505256,730303,871316,619 RochesterCityNY241,741231,636220,167210,512210,358 RochesterCityMN57,90670,74590,080106,748110,742 RockfordCityIL......151,365153,044150,251 RosevilleCityCA24,34744,68579,857118,801127,035 Round RockCityTX12,74030,92361,334100,002109,821 SacramentoCityCA275,741369,365406,606466,488479,686 SalemCityOR89,091107,786137,291154,732160,614 SalinasCityCA80,479108,777143,264150,498155,662 Salt Lake CityCityUT163,034159,936181,619186,443191,180 San AntonioCityTX785,940935,9331,151,3141,327,5581,409,019 San BernardinoCityCA118,494164,164188,742209,959213,708 San Buenaventura (Ventura)CityCA73,77492,575100,809107,196108,817 San DiegoCityCA875,5381,110,5491,222,9201,301,6211,355,896 San FranciscoCityCA678,974723,959776,764805,235837,442 San JoseCityCA629,400782,248903,937952,576998,537 San MateoCityCA77,64085,48692,63497,207101,128 Santa AnaCityCA204,023293,742337,707324,712334,227 Santa ClaraCityCA87,70093,613102,670116,495120,245 Santa ClaritaCityCA...120,050154,186176,320179,590 Santa MariaCityCA39,68561,28476,82299,456102,216 Santa RosaCityCA82,658113,313149,260167,834171,990 SavannahCityGA141,654137,560133,237136,341142,772 ScottsdaleCityAZ88,622130,069202,715217,355226,918 SeattleCityWA493,846516,259563,204608,662652,405 ShreveportCityLA......200,028200,410200,327 Simi ValleyCityCA77,500100,217111,333124,239126,181 Sioux FallsCitySD81,343100,814124,728153,897164,676 South BendCityIN......108,148101,075100,886 SpokaneCityWA171,300177,196196,588209,440210,721 SpringfieldCityMO133,116140,494152,466159,500164,122 SpringfieldCityMA152,319156,983152,001153,060153,703 SpringfieldCityIL100,054105,227112,514116,315117,006 Spring HillUnincFL6,46831,11769,07898,621100,000 Spring ValleyUnincNV......117,390178,395188,000 St. LouisCityMO452,801396,685348,192319,356318,416 St. PaulCityMN270,230272,235287,029285,068294,873 St. PetersburgCityFL238,647238,629248,717245,193249,688 StamfordCityCT102,466108,056117,080122,643126,456 Sterling HeightsCityMI108,999117,810124,469129,699131,224 StocktonCityCA148,283210,943243,151291,731298,118 SunnyvaleCityCA106,618117,229130,873140,058147,559 Sunrise ManorUnincNV44,15595,362156,120189,372197,000 SurpriseCityAZ......31,038117,517123,546 SyracuseCityNY170,105163,860146,361145,196144,669 TacomaCityWA158,501176,664193,338198,397203,446 TallahasseeCityFL81,548124,773151,947181,383186,411 TampaCityFL271,577280,015302,655335,715352,957 TemeculaCityCA......67,539100,158106,780 TempeCityAZ106,919141,865158,555161,778168,228 The WoodlandsUnincTX.........93,847105,000 ThorntonCityCO42,05455,03182,506118,797127,359 Thousand OaksCityCA77,072104,352116,916126,683128,731 ToledoCityOH354,635332,943313,373287,206282,313 TopekaCityKS118,690119,883123,978127,474127,679 TorranceCityCA129,881133,107137,575145,438147,478 TucsonCityAZ330,537405,390484,997520,570526,116 TulsaCityOK360,919367,302393,507391,886398,121 TylerCityTX70,50875,45084,72396,945100,223 VallejoCityCA80,303109,199116,661115,940118,837 VancouverCityWA......144,625161,849167,405 VictorvilleCityCA14,22040,67464,090115,921121,096 Virginia BeachCityVA262,199393,069425,236437,964448,479 VisaliaCityCA49,72975,63695,051124,464127,763 WacoCityTX101,261103,590114,898124,810129,030 WarrenCityMI161,134144,864138,165134,056134,873 WashingtonCityDC638,432606,900572,086601,767646,449 WaterburyCityCT103,266108,961107,195110,366109,676 West CovinaCityCA80,29296,086103,384106,098107,740 West JordanCityUT......78,788103,708110,077 WestminsterCityCO......100,674106,129110,945 West Palm BeachCityFL62,30567,64382,24199,923102,436 West Valley CityCityUT72,50986,976108,803129,480133,579 WichitaCityKS......351,793382,386386,552 Wichita FallsCityTX94,20196,259104,174104,554104,898 WilmingtonCityNC......90,110106,478112,067 Winston-SalemCityNC......201,399229,634236,441 WorcesterCityMA161,799169,759172,529181,041182,544 YonkersCityNY

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