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Their independent  exhibitions  brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a  Claude Monet  work,  Impression, soleil levant  (  Impression, Sunrise  ), which provoked the critic  Louis Leroy  to  coin  the term in a  satirical  review published in the Parisian newspaper   Le Charivari  .  Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open  composition , emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of  movement  as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the  visual arts  was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as  impressionist music  and  impressionist literature .     Contents    1   Overview      2   Beginnings      3   Impressionist techniques      4   Content and composition      5   Main Impressionists      6   Gallery      7   Timeline: Lives of the Impressionists      8   Associates and influenced artists      9   Beyond France      10   Sculpture, photography and film      11   Music and literature      12   Post-Impressionism      13   See also      14   Notes      15   References      16   External links        Overview       Pierre-Auguste Renoir ,  Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette ( Bal du moulin de la Galette ) ,  Musée d'Orsay , 1876  Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as  Eugène Delacroix  and  J. M. W. Turner . They also painted realistic scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously,  still lifes  and  portraits  as well as  landscapes  were usually painted in a studio.  [ 1 ]   The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting   en plein air  . They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, and used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration.  Impressionism emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the  Macchiaioli , and  Winslow Homer  in the United States, were also exploring  plein-air  painting. The Impressionists, however, developed new techniques specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.  The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style.  By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism is a precursor of various painting styles, including  Neo-Impressionism ,  Post-Impressionism ,  Fauvism , and  Cubism .   Beginnings   In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor  Napoleon III  rebuilt Paris and waged war—the  Académie des Beaux-Arts  dominated French art. The Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued; landscape and still life were not. The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artist's hand in the work.  [ 2 ]   Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish.  [ 3 ]    The Académie had an annual, juried art show, the  Salon de Paris , and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of such artists as  Jean-Léon Gérôme  and  Alexandre Cabanel .  In the early 1860s, four young painters— Claude Monet ,  Pierre-Auguste Renoir ,  Alfred Sisley , and  Frédéric Bazille —met while studying under the academic artist  Charles Gleyre . They discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. Following a practice that had become increasingly popular by mid-century, they often ventured into the countryside together to paint in the open air, but not for the purpose of making sketches to be developed into carefully finished works in the studio, as was the usual custom.  [ 4 ]   By painting in sunlight directly from nature, and making bold use of the vivid synthetic pigments that had become available since the beginning of the century, they began to develop a lighter and brighter manner of painting that extended further the  Realism  of  Gustave Courbet  and the  Barbizon school . A favourite meeting place for the artists was the  Café Guerbois  on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were often led by  Édouard Manet , whom the younger artists greatly admired. They were soon joined by  Camille Pissarro ,  Paul Cézanne , and  Armand Guillaumin .  [ 5 ]        Édouard Manet ,   The Luncheon on the Grass   ( Le déjeuner sur l'herbe ), 1863  During the 1860s, the Salon jury routinely rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style.  [ 6 ]   In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manet's  The Luncheon on the Grass   ( Le déjeuner sur l'herbe )  primarily because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury routinely accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, they condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting.  [ 7 ]   The jury's severely worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists.  After Emperor Napoleon III saw the rejected works of 1863, he decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, and the  Salon des Refusés  (Salon of the Refused) was organized. While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visitors than the regular Salon.  [ 8 ]        Alfred Sisley ,  View of the Saint-Martin Canal, Paris,  1870,  Musée d'Orsay   Artists' petitions requesting a new Salon des Refusés in 1867, and again in 1872, were denied. In December 1873,  Monet ,  Renoir ,  Pissarro ,  Sisley ,  Cézanne ,  Berthe Morisot ,  Edgar Degas  and several other artists founded the  Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs  ("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") to exhibit their artworks independently.  [ 9 ]   Members of the association were expected to forswear participation in the Salon.  [ 10 ]   The organizers invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their inaugural exhibition, including the older  Eugène Boudin , whose example had first persuaded Monet to adopt  plein air  painting years before.  [ 11 ]   Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends,  Johan Jongkind , declined to participate, as did  Édouard Manet . In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer  Nadar .      Claude Monet ,   Impression, soleil levant   ( Impression, Sunrise ), 1872, oil on canvas,  Musée Marmottan Monet ,  Paris   The critical response was mixed. Monet and Cézanne received the harshest attacks. Critic and humorist  Louis Leroy  wrote a scathing review in the newspaper  Le Charivari  in which, making wordplay with the title of Claude Monet's   Impression, Sunrise    (Impression, soleil levant) , he gave the artists the name by which they became known. Derisively titling his article   The Exhibition of the Impressionists  , Leroy declared that Monet's painting was at most, a sketch, and could hardly be termed a finished work.  He wrote, in the form of a dialog between viewers,   Impression—I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it ... and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape.   [ 12 ]        Claude Monet ,   Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son   (Camille and Jean Monet), 1875,  National Gallery of Art ,  Washington, D.C.   The term  impressionists  quickly gained favour with the public. It was also accepted by the artists themselves, even though they were a diverse group in style and temperament, unified primarily by their spirit of independence and rebellion. They exhibited together—albeit with shifting membership—eight times between 1874 and 1886. The Impressionists' style, with its loose, spontaneous brushstrokes, would soon become synonymous with modern life.  [ 3 ]    Monet, Sisley, Morisot, and Pissarro may be considered the "purest" Impressionists, in their consistent pursuit of an art of spontaneity, sunlight, and colour. Degas rejected much of this, as he believed in the primacy of drawing over colour and belittled the practice of painting outdoors.  [ 13 ]   Renoir turned away from Impressionism for a time during the 1880s, and never entirely regained his commitment to its ideas. Édouard Manet, although regarded by the Impressionists as their leader,  [ 14 ]   never abandoned his liberal use of black as a colour, and never participated in the Impressionist exhibitions. He continued to submit his works to the Salon, where his painting  Spanish Singer  had won a 2nd class medal in 1861, and he urged the others to do likewise, arguing that "the Salon is the real field of battle" where a reputation could be made.  [ 15 ]        Camille Pissarro ,  Boulevard Montmartre,  1897, the  Hermitage ,  Saint Petersburg   Among the artists of the core group (minus Bazille, who had died in the  Franco-Prussian War  in 1870), defections occurred as Cézanne, followed later by Renoir, Sisley, and Monet, abstained from the group exhibitions so they could submit their works to the Salon. Disagreements arose from issues such as Guillaumin's membership in the group, championed by Pissarro and Cézanne against opposition from Monet and Degas, who thought him unworthy.  [ 16 ]   Degas invited  Mary Cassatt  to display her work in the 1879 exhibition, but also insisted on the inclusion of  Jean-François Raffaëlli ,  Ludovic Lepic , and other realists who did not represent Impressionist practices, causing Monet in 1880 to accuse the Impressionists of "opening doors to first-come daubers".  [ 17 ]   The group divided over invitations to  Paul Signac  and  Georges Seurat  to exhibit with them in 1886. Pissarro was the only artist to show at all eight Impressionist exhibitions.  The individual artists achieved few financial rewards from the Impressionist exhibitions, but their art gradually won a degree of public acceptance and support. Their dealer,  Durand-Ruel , played a major role in this as he kept their work before the public and arranged shows for them in London and New York. Although Sisley died in poverty in 1899, Renoir had a great Salon success in 1879. Monet became secure financially during the early 1880s and so did Pissarro by the early 1890s. By this time the methods of Impressionist painting, in a diluted form, had become commonplace in Salon art.  [ 18 ]     Impressionist techniques       Mary Cassatt ,  Lydia Leaning on Her Arms  (in a theatre box), 1879  French painters who prepared the way for Impressionism include the  Romantic  colourist  Eugène Delacroix , the leader of the realists  Gustave Courbet , and painters of the Barbizon school such as  Théodore Rousseau . The Impressionists learned much from the work of  Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot  and  Eugène Boudin , who painted from nature in a style that was similar to Impressionism, and who befriended and advised the younger artists.  A number of identifiable techniques and working habits contributed to the innovative style of the Impressionists. Although these methods had been used by previous artists—and are often conspicuous in the work of artists such as  Frans Hals ,  Diego Velázquez ,  Peter Paul Rubens ,  John Constable , and  J. M. W. Turner —the Impressionists were the first to use them all together, and with such consistency. These techniques include:  Short, thick strokes of paint quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details. The paint is often applied  impasto .  Colours are applied side-by-side with as little mixing as possible, a technique that exploits the principle of  simultaneous contrast  to make the colour appear more vivid to the viewer.  Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing  complementary colours . Pure impressionism avoids the use of black paint.   Wet paint is placed into wet paint  without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of colour.  Impressionist paintings do not exploit the transparency of thin paint films (glazes), which earlier artists manipulated carefully to produce effects. The impressionist painting surface is typically opaque.  The paint is applied to a white or light-coloured ground. Previously, painters often used dark grey or strongly coloured grounds.  The play of natural light is emphasized. Close attention is paid to the reflection of colours from object to object. Painters often worked in the evening to produce   effets de soir  —the shadowy effects of evening or twilight.  In paintings made   en plein air   (outdoors), shadows are boldly painted with the blue of the sky as it is reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness previously not represented in painting. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)  New technology played a role in the development of the style. Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in tin tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes), which allowed artists to work more spontaneously, both outdoors and indoors.  [ 19 ]   Previously, painters made their own paints individually, by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, which were then stored in animal bladders.  [ 20 ]    Many vivid synthetic pigments became commercially available to artists for the first time during the 19th century. These included  cobalt blue ,  viridian ,  cadmium yellow , and synthetic  ultramarine blue , all of which were in use by the 1840s, before Impressionism.  [ 21 ]   The Impressionists' manner of painting made bold use of these pigments, as well as even newer colours such as  cerulean blue ,  [ 3 ]   which became commercially available to artists in the 1860s.  [ 21 ]    The Impressionists' progress toward a brighter style of painting was gradual. During the 1860s, Monet and Renoir sometimes painted on canvases prepared with the traditional red-brown or grey ground.  [ 22 ]   By the 1870s, Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro usually chose to paint on grounds of a lighter grey or beige colour, which functioned as a middle tone in the finished painting.  [ 22 ]   By the 1880s, some of the Impressionists had come to prefer white or slightly off-white grounds, and no longer allowed the ground colour a significant role in the finished painting.  [ 23 ]     Content and composition       Camille Pissarro ,  Hay Harvest at Éragny,  1901,  National Gallery of Canada ,  Ottawa ,  Ontario   Prior to the Impressionists, other painters, notably such  17th-century Dutch painters  as  Jan Steen , had emphasized common subjects, but their methods of  composition  were traditional. They arranged their compositions so that the main subject commanded the viewer's attention. The Impressionists relaxed the boundary between subject and background so that the effect of an Impressionist painting often resembles a snapshot, a part of a larger reality captured as if by chance.  [ 24 ]    Photography  was gaining popularity, and as cameras became more portable, photographs became more candid. Photography inspired Impressionists to represent momentary action, not only in the fleeting lights of a landscape, but in the day-to-day lives of people.      Berthe Morisot ,  Reading,  1873,  Cleveland Museum of Art   The development of Impressionism can be considered partly as a reaction by artists to the challenge presented by photography, which seemed to devalue the artist's skill in reproducing reality. Both portrait and  landscape  paintings were deemed somewhat deficient and lacking in truth as photography "produced lifelike images much more efficiently and reliably".  [ 25 ]    In spite of this, photography actually inspired artists to pursue other means of artistic expression, and rather than compete with photography to emulate reality, artists focused "on the one thing they could inevitably do better than the photograph—by further developing into an art form its very subjectivity in the conception of the image, the very subjectivity that photography eliminated".  [ 25 ]   The Impressionists sought to express their perceptions of nature, rather than create exact representations. This allowed artists to depict subjectively what they saw with their "tacit imperatives of taste and conscience".  [ 26 ]   Photography encouraged painters to exploit aspects of the painting medium, like colour, which photography then lacked: "The Impressionists were the first to consciously offer a subjective alternative to the photograph".  [ 25 ]        Claude Monet ,  Jardin à Sainte-Adresse,  1867,  Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York.,  [ 27 ]   a work showing the influence of Japanese prints  Another major influence was Japanese art prints ( Japonism ), which originally came into France as wrapping paper on imported goods. The art of these prints contributed significantly to the "snapshot" angles and unconventional compositions that became characteristic of Impressionism. An example is Monet's  Jardin à Sainte-Adresse,  1867, with its bold blocks of colour and composition on a strong diagonal slant showing the influence of Japanese prints  [ 28 ]     Edgar Degas  was both an avid photographer and a collector of Japanese prints.  [ 29 ]   His  The Dance Class   (La classe de danse)  of 1874 shows both influences in its asymmetrical composition. The dancers are seemingly caught off guard in various awkward poses, leaving an expanse of empty floor space in the lower right quadrant. He also captured his dancers in sculpture, such as the   Little Dancer of Fourteen Years  .   Main Impressionists       Berthe Morisot ,  The Harbor at Lorient,  1869,  National Gallery of Art ,  Washington, D.C.   The central figures in the development of Impressionism in France, listed alphabetically, were:   Frédéric Bazille  (1841–1870)   Gustave Caillebotte  (who, younger than the others, joined forces with them in the mid-1870s) (1848–1894)   Mary Cassatt  (American-born, she lived in Paris and participated in four Impressionist exhibitions) (1844–1926)   Paul Cézanne  (although he later broke away from the Impressionists) (1839–1906)   Edgar Degas  (who despised the term  Impressionist ) (1834–1917)   Armand Guillaumin  (1841–1927)   Édouard Manet  (who did not participate in any of the Impressionist exhibitions) (1832–1883)  [ 30 ]     Claude Monet  (the most prolific of the Impressionists and the one who embodies their aesthetic most obviously)  [ 31 ]   (1840–1926)   Berthe Morisot  (1841–1895)   Camille Pissarro  (1830–1903)   Pierre-Auguste Renoir  (1841–1919)   Alfred Sisley  (1839–1899)  States NameAbbr.StatusCapitalArea         A-L (km²) Population  C 1980-04-01 Population  C 1990-04-01 Population  C 2000-04-01 Population  C 2010-04-01 Population  E 2013-04-01  USAUSAFed RepWashington9,161,074226,545,805248,709,873281,421,906308,745,538316,128,839  Alabama ALFStMontgomery131,4143,893,8884,040,5874,447,1004,779,7364,833,722Area: 131,414 km² – Density: 36.8 inh./km² [2013] – Change: +0.37%/year [2010 → 2013]  Google Search for:  Hotels  –  Restaurants  –  Shopping  –  Sights  –  Maps  –  Images   Population Graph: Set / Add –  Wikipedia    Alaska AKFStJuneau1,481,210401,851550,043626,932710,231735,132  Arizona AZFStPhoenix294,2852,718,2153,665,2285,130,6326,392,0176,626,624  Arkansas ARFStLittle Rock134,8432,286,4352,350,7252,673,4002,915,9182,959,373  California CAFStSacramento403,89523,667,90229,760,02133,871,64837,253,95638,332,521  Colorado COFStDenver268,6022,889,9643,294,3944,301,2615,029,1965,268,367  Connecticut CTFStHartford12,5473,107,5763,287,1163,405,5653,574,0973,596,080  Delaware DEFStDover5,059594,338666,168783,600897,934925,749  District of Columbia DCDistWashington159638,333606,900572,059601,723646,449  Florida FLFStTallahassee139,6579,746,32412,937,92615,982,37818,801,31019,552,860  Georgia GAFStAtlanta149,9625,463,1056,478,2168,186,4539,687,6539,992,167  Hawaii HIFStHonolulu16,633964,6911,108,2291,211,5371,360,3011,404,054  Idaho IDFStBoise City214,294943,9351,006,7491,293,9531,567,5821,612,136  Illinois ILFStSpringfield143,94711,426,51811,430,60212,419,29312,830,63212,882,135  Indiana INFStIndianapolis92,8865,490,2245,544,1596,080,4856,483,8026,570,902  Iowa IAFStDes Moines144,6882,913,8082,776,7552,926,3243,046,3553,090,416  Kansas KSFStTopeka211,8802,363,6792,477,5742,688,4182,853,1182,893,957  Kentucky KYFStFrankfort102,8863,660,7773,685,2964,041,7694,339,3674,395,295  Louisiana LAFStBaton Rouge112,8144,205,9004,219,9734,468,9764,533,3724,625,470  Maine MEFStAugusta79,9241,124,6601,227,9281,274,9231,328,3611,328,302  Maryland MDFStAnnapolis25,3124,216,9754,781,4685,296,4865,773,5525,928,814  Massachusetts MAFStBoston20,3045,737,0376,016,4256,349,0976,547,6296,692,824  Michigan MIFStLansing147,1089,262,0789,295,2979,938,4449,883,6409,895,622  Minnesota MNFStSt. Paul206,1704,075,9704,375,0994,919,4795,303,9255,420,380  Mississippi MSFStJackson121,4772,520,6382,573,2162,844,6582,967,2972,991,207  Missouri MOFStJefferson City178,3974,916,6865,117,0735,595,2115,988,9276,044,171  Montana MTFStHelena376,944786,690799,065902,195989,4151,015,165  Nebraska NEFStLincoln199,0801,569,8251,578,3851,711,2631,826,3411,868,516  Nevada NVFStCarson City284,422800,4931,201,8331,998,2572,700,5512,790,136  New Hampshire NHFStConcord23,225920,6101,109,2521,235,7861,316,4701,323,459  New Jersey NJFStTrenton19,2097,364,8237,730,1888,414,3508,791,8948,899,339  New Mexico NMFStSanta Fe314,2801,302,8941,515,0691,819,0462,059,1792,085,287  New York NYFStAlbany122,27217,558,07217,990,45518,976,45719,378,10219,651,127  North Carolina NCFStRaleigh126,1495,881,7666,628,6378,049,3139,535,4839,848,060  North Dakota NDFStBismarck178,630652,717638,800642,200672,591723,393  Ohio OHFStColumbus106,04610,797,63010,847,11511,353,14011,536,50411,570,808  Oklahoma OKFStOklahoma City177,8303,025,2903,145,5853,450,6543,751,3513,850,568  Oregon ORFStSalem248,6072,633,1052,842,3213,421,3993,831,0743,930,065  Pennsylvania PAFStHarrisburg116,06411,863,89511,881,64312,281,05412,702,37912,773,801  Rhode Island RIFStProvidence2,706947,1541,003,4641,048,3191,052,5671,051,511  South Carolina SCFStColumbia77,9763,121,8203,486,7034,012,0124,625,3644,774,839  South Dakota SDFStPierre196,522690,768696,004754,844814,180844,877  Tennessee TNFStNashville106,7424,591,1204,877,1855,689,2836,346,1056,495,978  Texas TXFStAustin677,98914,229,19116,986,51020,851,82025,145,56126,448,193  Utah UTFStSalt Lake City212,7311,461,0371,722,8502,233,1692,763,8852,900,872  Vermont VTFStMontpelier23,954511,456562,758608,827625,741626,630  Virginia VAFStRichmond102,5395,346,8186,187,3587,078,5158,001,0248,260,405  Washington WAFStOlympia172,3324,132,1564,866,6925,894,1216,724,5406,971,406  West Virginia WVFStCharleston62,3551,949,6441,793,4771,808,3441,852,9941,854,304  Wisconsin WIFStMadison140,6494,705,7674,891,7695,363,6755,686,9865,742,713  Wyoming WYFStCheyenne251,466469,557453,588493,782563,626582,658               US Census Bureau (web).              Major Cities  NameAdm.Population  C E 2013-07-01  1New YorkNY8,405,837 2Los AngelesCA3,884,307 3ChicagoIL2,718,782 4HoustonTX2,195,914 5PhiladelphiaPA1,553,165 6PhoenixAZ1,513,367 7San AntonioTX1,409,019 8San DiegoCA1,355,896 9DallasTX1,257,676 10San JoseCA998,537 Cities, Towns & Places NameStatusAdm.Population  C C 1980-04-01 Population  C C 1990-04-01 Population  C C 2000-04-01 Population  C C 2010-04-01 Population  C E 2013-07-01   Abilene CityTX98,315106,654116,028117,463120,099  Akron CityOH237,177223,019216,899199,092198,100  Albuquerque CityNM332,920384,736449,807546,364556,495  Alexandria CityVA103,217111,183128,278139,966148,892  Allentown CityPA103,758105,090106,661118,032118,577  Amarillo CityTX149,230157,615173,562190,701196,429  Anaheim CityCA219,494266,406327,920336,511345,012  Anchorage MunAK174,431226,338260,299291,826300,950  Ann Arbor CityMI107,969109,592114,638113,946117,025  Antioch CityCA42,68362,19590,924102,365107,100  Arlington CityTX160,113261,721333,240365,366379,577  Arlington CntyVA152,599170,936189,385207,628224,906  Arvada CityCO......102,383106,474111,707  Athens  ( - Clarke County )UGovGA...86,522100,667115,453119,980  Atlanta CityGA425,022394,017418,371420,279447,841  Augusta  ( - Richmond County )UGovGA...186,616195,016195,844197,350  Aurora CityIL81,29399,581143,002197,952199,963  Aurora CityCO158,588222,103275,687324,601345,803  Austin CityTX345,890465,622670,654810,759885,400  Bakersfield CityCA105,611174,820244,217347,568363,630  Baltimore CityMD786,741736,014651,262621,115622,104  Baton Rouge CityLA220,394219,531226,623229,452229,426  Beaumont CityTX118,102114,323113,658117,267117,796  Bellevue CityWA......112,380127,887133,992  Berkeley CityCA103,328102,724102,653112,497116,768  Billings CityMT66,81881,15191,740104,190109,059  Birmingham CityAL284,413265,347241,645212,193212,113  Boise City CityID......195,604206,105214,237  Boston CityMA...574,283590,355617,720645,966  Boulder CityCO76,68583,31294,21397,468103,166  Brandon UnincFL41,82657,98577,895103,483 109,000   Bridgeport CityCT142,546141,686139,526144,236147,216  Broken Arrow CityOK......80,95798,832103,500  Brownsville CityTX......144,364175,007181,860  Buffalo CityNY357,870328,123292,819261,325258,959  Burbank CityCA84,62593,649100,317103,340104,709  Cambridge CityMA95,32295,802101,322105,162107,289  Cape Coral CityFL32,10374,991102,414154,305165,831  Carlsbad CityCA35,49063,12678,455105,459110,972  Carrollton CityTX40,59582,169109,680119,100126,700  Cary TownNC......96,260135,276151,088  Cedar Rapids CityIA......121,135126,326128,429  Centennial CityCO......102,586100,442106,114  Chandler CityAZ29,67390,533176,240236,176249,146  Charleston CitySC69,77980,414100,459120,358127,999  Charlotte CityNC......574,151735,766792,862  Chattanooga CityTN169,514152,466156,472168,828173,366  Chesapeake CityVA114,486151,976199,153222,209230,571  Chicago CityIL3,005,0722,783,7262,895,9662,695,5982,718,782  Chula Vista CityCA83,927135,163173,661243,916256,780  Cincinnati CityOH385,409364,040330,796296,950297,517  Clarksville CityTN54,77775,494103,601132,957142,357  Clearwater CityFL85,17098,784109,221108,261109,703  Cleveland CityOH573,822505,616477,450396,697390,113  College Station CityTX37,27252,45668,64494,063100,050  Colorado Springs CityCO215,105281,140360,329417,341439,886  Columbia UnincMD 52,518  75,883  88,254 99,615 105,000   Columbia CityMO62,06169,10185,814108,835115,276  Columbia CitySC......118,135130,038133,358  Columbus CityGA169,441178,681186,213189,885202,824  Columbus CityOH565,021632,910712,445788,626822,553  Concord CityCA103,763111,348122,001122,110125,880  Coral Springs CityFL37,34979,443118,002121,098126,604  Corona CityCA37,79176,095127,618152,374159,503  Corpus Christi CityTX232,134257,453277,560305,215316,381  Costa Mesa CityCA82,56296,357109,371109,935112,174  Dallas CityTX904,5991,006,8771,187,7421,197,7871,257,676  Daly City CityCA78,51992,311103,519101,099104,739  Davenport CityIA103,26495,33398,29899,687102,157  Dayton CityOH193,536182,044165,579141,761143,355  Denton CityTX48,06366,27083,442114,187123,099  Denver CityCO492,686467,610553,805600,080649,495  Des Moines CityIA191,003193,187199,173204,192207,510  Detroit CityMI1,203,3681,027,974951,232713,862688,701  Downey CityCA82,60291,444107,366111,772113,242  Durham CityNC......187,950228,404245,475  East Los Angeles UnincCA110,017126,379124,283126,496 126,800   Edison TshpNJ70,19388,68097,62399,971101,450  El Cajon CityCA73,89288,69394,90799,476102,211  Elgin CityIL63,66877,01094,638108,214110,145  Elizabeth CityNJ106,201110,002120,599124,969127,558  Elk Grove  ( incl. Laguna )CityCA......81,082153,015161,007  El Monte CityCA79,494106,209116,102113,475115,708  El Paso CityTX425,259515,342566,896649,133674,433  Enterprise UnincNV...6,41214,676108,481 130,000   Erie CityPA119,123108,718103,748101,784100,671  Escondido CityCA64,355108,635133,524143,913148,738  Eugene CityOR105,664112,669138,831156,358159,190  Evansville CityIN 130,496  126,272  121,611 120,081120,310  Everett CityWA......95,617103,022105,370  Fairfield CityCA58,09977,21196,213105,323109,320  Fargo CityND61,38374,11191,001105,549113,658  Fayetteville CityNC......203,199200,574204,408  Fontana CityCA......144,869196,069203,003  Fort Collins CityCO65,09287,758121,591144,073152,061  Fort Lauderdale CityFL......170,617165,502172,389  Fort Wayne CityIN......253,688253,706256,496  Fort Worth CityTX385,164447,619543,044742,060792,727  Fremont CityCA131,945173,339203,461214,079224,922  Fresno CityCA217,491354,202429,583496,093509,924  Frisco CityTX......33,618117,084136,791  Fullerton CityCA102,246114,144126,187135,258138,981  Gainesville CityFL......117,860124,486127,488  Garden Grove CityCA123,307143,050165,242171,010175,140  Garland CityTX138,857180,650215,818226,876234,566  Gilbert TownAZ5,71729,188114,567208,414229,972  Glendale CityAZ97,172148,134219,721226,437234,632  Glendale CityCA139,060180,038194,943191,713196,021  Grand Prairie CityTX71,46299,616128,025175,468183,372  Grand Rapids CityMI181,843189,126198,057188,051192,294  Green Bay CityWI87,89996,466102,877103,913104,779  Greensboro CityNC......236,152268,878279,639  Gresham CityOR33,00568,23590,205105,594109,397  Hampton CityVA122,617133,793146,436137,515136,699  Hartford CityCT......124,175124,775125,017  Hayward CityCA93,585114,498140,107144,342151,574  Henderson CityNV24,36364,942175,480257,437270,811  Hialeah CityFL145,254188,004226,211224,667233,394  Highlands Ranch UnincCO......70,93196,713 102,000   High Point CityNC......85,677104,387107,741  Hollywood CityFL121,323121,697139,427140,769146,526  Honolulu  ( Urban Honolulu CDP )CityHI 365,048  365,272  371,657 337,256347,884  Houston CityTX1,595,1381,630,5531,973,6482,096,7982,195,914  Huntington Beach CityCA170,505181,519189,591191,037197,575  Huntsville CityAL142,513159,789159,390180,241186,254  Independence CityMO111,797112,301113,457116,830117,240  Indianapolis CityIN700,807731,327782,429820,442843,393  Inglewood CityCA94,162109,602112,276109,673111,542  Irvine CityCA62,134110,330144,023211,906236,716  Irving CityTX109,943155,037191,733216,287228,653  Jackson CityMS202,895196,637186,843173,513172,638  Jacksonville CityFL540,920635,230735,070821,784842,583  Jersey City CityNJ223,532228,537240,136247,643257,342  Joliet CityIL......106,849147,457147,806  Kansas City CityKS161,148149,767146,906145,786148,483  Kansas City CityMO448,028435,146441,861459,787467,007  Kent CityWA......80,492118,590124,435  Killeen CityTX46,29663,53590,162127,911137,147  Knoxville CityTN......173,812178,765183,270  Lafayette CityLA......111,445120,719124,276  Lakeland CityFL47,40670,57684,69197,433100,710  Lakewood CityCO113,808126,481143,945142,999147,214  Lancaster CityCA48,02797,291118,487156,633159,523  Lansing CityMI130,414127,321119,813114,297113,972  Laredo CityTX91,449122,899179,518236,086248,142  Las Cruces CityNM45,08662,12674,94297,621101,324  Las Vegas CityNV164,674258,295480,042584,044603,488  Lewisville CityTX24,27346,52177,64795,309101,074  Lexington  ( - Fayette )UGovKY204,165225,366260,527295,803308,428  Lincoln CityNE171,932191,972227,048258,468268,738  Little Rock CityAR159,151175,795183,123193,524197,357  Long Beach CityCA361,498429,433461,412462,257469,428  Los Angeles CityCA2,968,5283,485,3983,694,2573,792,6223,884,307  Louisville  ( / Jefferson County )UGovKY......553,979597,265609,893  Lowell CityMA92,418103,439105,046106,519108,861  Lubbock CityTX174,361186,206200,003229,399239,538  Madison CityWI170,616191,262208,966233,362243,344  Manchester CityNH90,93699,567107,023109,571110,378  McAllen CityTX66,28184,021106,727130,242136,639  McKinney CityTX16,25621,28354,248131,025148,559  Memphis CityTN......689,199646,872653,450  Mesa CityAZ152,404288,091397,503439,611457,587  Mesquite CityTX67,053101,484125,085139,629143,484  Metairie UnincLA164,160149,428146,136138,481 139,000   Miami CityFL346,681358,548361,580399,508417,650  Miami Gardens  ( Carol City - Norland )CityFL......100,421107,163111,378  Midland CityTX70,52589,44395,780111,147123,933  Milwaukee CityWI636,297628,088596,783594,740599,164  Minneapolis CityMN370,951368,383382,824382,578400,070  Miramar CityFL32,81340,66372,757122,041130,288  Mobile CityAL200,452196,278203,627195,102194,899  Modesto CityCA106,963164,730188,947201,187204,933  Montgomery CityAL......201,694205,597201,332  Moreno Valley CityCA...118,779142,634193,365201,175  Murfreesboro CityTN32,84544,92269,205109,046117,044  Murrieta CityCA......51,256103,424107,479  Naperville CityIL42,60185,351128,396142,089144,864  Nashville  ( - Davidson )UGovTN455,651488,374545,659603,527634,464  Newark CityNJ329,248275,221272,499277,138278,427  New Haven CityCT126,089130,474123,928129,868130,660  New Orleans CityLA557,927496,938484,692343,829378,715  Newport News CityVA144,903170,045180,272180,918182,020  New York CityNY7,071,6397,322,5648,009,1858,175,1368,405,837  Norfolk CityVA266,979261,229234,463242,833246,139  Norman CityOK68,02080,07196,815110,925118,197  North Charleston CitySC62,47970,21881,43497,690104,054  North Las Vegas CityNV42,73947,707116,527216,701226,877  Norwalk CityCA84,90194,279103,539105,549106,589  Oakland CityCA339,337372,242399,334390,865406,253  Oceanside CityCA76,698128,398160,645167,086172,794  Odessa CityTX90,02789,69990,72699,875110,720  Oklahoma City CityOK404,014444,719505,530580,005610,613  Olathe CityKS37,25863,35293,069125,876131,885  Omaha CityNE......408,637416,969434,353  Ontario CityCA88,820133,179158,011163,924167,500  Orange CityCA91,450110,658129,744136,426139,969  Orlando CityFL128,291164,693194,880238,834255,483  Overland Park CityKS81,784111,790150,676173,334181,260  Oxnard CityCA108,195142,216170,179197,899203,007  Palm Bay CityFL18,56062,63279,403103,203104,898  Palmdale CityCA12,27768,842116,891152,750157,161  Paradise UnincNV84,818124,682186,070223,167 230,000   Pasadena CityCA118,072131,591133,842137,122139,731  Pasadena CityTX112,560119,363141,763149,300152,735  Paterson CityNJ137,970140,891149,230146,199145,948  Pearland CityTX......45,68389,894100,065  Pembroke Pines CityFL35,77665,452137,324154,019162,329  Peoria CityIL124,160113,504112,964115,021116,513  Peoria CityAZ12,17150,618109,123154,084162,592  Philadelphia CityPA1,688,2101,585,5771,517,5621,526,0061,553,165  Phoenix CityAZ789,704983,4031,323,1071,447,6261,513,367  Pittsburgh CityPA423,959369,879334,325305,702305,841  Plano CityTX72,331128,713221,996259,841274,409  Pomona CityCA92,742131,723147,966149,058151,348  Pompano Beach CityFL......100,27799,844104,410  Portland CityOR368,148437,319529,122583,786609,456  Port St. Lucie CityFL14,69055,86688,454164,719171,016  Providence CityRI156,804160,728173,525178,042177,994  Provo CityUT74,11186,835105,552112,495116,288  Pueblo CityCO101,68698,640101,796106,544108,249  Raleigh CityNC......288,283403,971431,746  Rancho Cucamonga CityCA55,250101,409127,755165,350171,386  Reno CityNV100,756133,850183,547225,988233,294  Rialto CityCA37,86272,38892,03599,170101,910  Richardson CityTX72,49674,84091,13299,223104,475  Richmond CityVA219,214203,056196,991204,247214,114  Richmond CityCA74,67687,42599,250103,670107,571  Riverside CityCA170,591226,505256,730303,871316,619  Rochester CityNY241,741231,636220,167210,512210,358  Rochester CityMN57,90670,74590,080106,748110,742  Rockford CityIL......151,365153,044150,251  Roseville CityCA24,34744,68579,857118,801127,035  Round Rock CityTX12,74030,92361,334100,002109,821  Sacramento CityCA275,741369,365406,606466,488479,686  Salem CityOR89,091107,786137,291154,732160,614  Salinas CityCA80,479108,777143,264150,498155,662  Salt Lake City CityUT163,034159,936181,619186,443191,180  San Antonio CityTX785,940935,9331,151,3141,327,5581,409,019  San Bernardino CityCA118,494164,164188,742209,959213,708  San Buenaventura  ( Ventura )CityCA73,77492,575100,809107,196108,817  San Diego CityCA875,5381,110,5491,222,9201,301,6211,355,896  San Francisco CityCA678,974723,959776,764805,235837,442  San Jose CityCA629,400782,248903,937952,576998,537  San Mateo CityCA77,64085,48692,63497,207101,128  Santa Ana CityCA204,023293,742337,707324,712334,227  Santa Clara CityCA87,70093,613102,670116,495120,245  Santa Clarita CityCA...120,050154,186176,320179,590  Santa Maria CityCA39,68561,28476,82299,456102,216  Santa Rosa CityCA82,658113,313149,260167,834171,990  Savannah CityGA141,654137,560133,237136,341142,772  Scottsdale CityAZ88,622130,069202,715217,355226,918  Seattle CityWA493,846516,259563,204608,662652,405  Shreveport CityLA......200,028200,410200,327  Simi Valley CityCA77,500100,217111,333124,239126,181  Sioux Falls CitySD81,343100,814124,728153,897164,676  South Bend CityIN......108,148101,075100,886  Spokane CityWA171,300177,196196,588209,440210,721  Springfield CityMO133,116140,494152,466159,500164,122  Springfield CityMA152,319156,983152,001153,060153,703  Springfield CityIL100,054105,227112,514116,315117,006  Spring Hill UnincFL6,46831,11769,07898,621 100,000   Spring Valley UnincNV......117,390178,395 188,000   St. Louis CityMO452,801396,685348,192319,356318,416  St. Paul CityMN270,230272,235287,029285,068294,873  St. Petersburg CityFL238,647238,629248,717245,193249,688  Stamford CityCT102,466108,056117,080122,643126,456  Sterling Heights CityMI108,999117,810124,469129,699131,224  Stockton CityCA148,283210,943243,151291,731298,118  Sunnyvale CityCA106,618117,229130,873140,058147,559  Sunrise Manor UnincNV44,15595,362156,120189,372 197,000   Surprise CityAZ......31,038117,517123,546  Syracuse CityNY170,105163,860146,361145,196144,669  Tacoma CityWA158,501176,664193,338198,397203,446  Tallahassee CityFL81,548124,773151,947181,383186,411  Tampa CityFL271,577280,015302,655335,715352,957  Temecula CityCA......67,539100,158106,780  Tempe CityAZ106,919141,865158,555161,778168,228  The Woodlands UnincTX.........93,847 105,000   Thornton CityCO42,05455,03182,506118,797127,359  Thousand Oaks CityCA77,072104,352116,916126,683128,731  Toledo CityOH354,635332,943313,373287,206282,313  Topeka CityKS118,690119,883123,978127,474127,679  Torrance CityCA129,881133,107137,575145,438147,478  Tucson CityAZ330,537405,390484,997520,570526,116  Tulsa CityOK360,919367,302393,507391,886398,121  Tyler CityTX70,50875,45084,72396,945100,223  Vallejo CityCA80,303109,199116,661115,940118,837  Vancouver CityWA......144,625161,849167,405  Victorville CityCA14,22040,67464,090115,921121,096  Virginia Beach CityVA262,199393,069425,236437,964448,479  Visalia CityCA49,72975,63695,051124,464127,763  Waco CityTX101,261103,590114,898124,810129,030  Warren CityMI161,134144,864138,165134,056134,873  Washington CityDC638,432606,900572,086601,767646,449  Waterbury CityCT103,266108,961107,195110,366109,676  West Covina CityCA80,29296,086103,384106,098107,740  West Jordan CityUT......78,788103,708110,077  Westminster CityCO......100,674106,129110,945  West Palm Beach CityFL62,30567,64382,24199,923102,436  West Valley City CityUT72,50986,976108,803129,480133,579  Wichita CityKS......351,793382,386386,552  Wichita Falls CityTX94,20196,259104,174104,554104,898  Wilmington CityNC......90,110106,478112,067  Winston-Salem CityNC......201,399229,634236,441  Worcester CityMA161,799169,759172,529181,041182,544  Yonkers CityNY       12.5 x 12.5   5 x 5" 15 x 15   6 x 6" 17.5 x 12.5   7 x 5" 20 x 20   8 x 8" 25 x 20   10 x 8" 25 x 25   10 x 10" 30 x 25   12 x 10" 30 x 30   12 x 12" 35 x 25   14 x 10" 35 x 35   14 x 14" 40 x 30   16 x 12" 40 x 40   16 x 16" 45 x 15   18 x 6" 45 x 35   18 x 14" 45 x 45   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carl bork
 Carl Bork
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